CBD May Inhibit the Pain Reducing Effects of THC

Wednesday, 16 January 2019

“Which is why it is important to know how cannabis acts as medicine. Don’t try to treat yourself with ditch weed, see a knowledgeable doctor. CBD acts as a NAM (negative allosteric modulator) to THC. This is sometimes beneficial (decreasespsycho active effects and allows THC to work longer) and sometimes possibly detrimental, as in this study.”
- Dr. David Hepburn

Abstract:

Humans typically self-administer cannabidiol (CBD) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) together repeatedly (as in cannabis, cannabis extract, or Sativex®) to relieve pain. It has been suggested that one benefit of the drug combination may be decreased tolerance development.
The decrease in THC's antinociceptive effects after repeated CBD exposure may be due to CBD-induced inhibition of THC metabolism, and/or antagonism of THC effects that emerge with repeated CBD treatment.

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Dr. Dave Hepburn website: https://doctordavidhepburn.com

Medical Cannabis Laws Decreases violent crime by 20% in California

Tuesday, 15 January 2019

“Researchers found no influence of the legalisation of cannabis for medicinal purposes in the USA nonviolent property crime at the national level.”
-    Dr. David Hepburn

Abstract:

Most U.S. states have passed medical marijuana laws.
This document presents a study of the effects of these laws on violent and property crime.
It´s interesting to find that in California the medical marijuana law reduced both violent and property crime by 20%.

Read full article here:


Dr. Dave Hepburn website: https://doctordavidhepburn.com

Brianne, Alzheimers, Probiotics, and CBD

Monday, 14 January 2019

“In a remarkable paper, neurologist Ethan Russo connects receptors, epidemiology, the microbiome, neuroinflammation, and cannabis to explain possible therapeutic targets in treatments of troubling neurodegenerative conditions like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’ Diseases. I challenge you to follow the bouncing ball. This one paper could keep the entireIvy League busy for a decade.”
- Dr. David Hepburn

Abstract:

Neurological therapeutics have been hampered by its inability to advance beyond symptomatic treatment of neurodegenerative disorders into the realm of actual palliation, arrest or reversal of the attendant pathological processes.

While cannabis-based medicines have demonstrated safety, efficacy and consistency sufficient for regulatory approval in spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS), and in Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut Syndromes (LGS), many therapeutic challenges remain. 

The review examines the intriguing promise that recent discoveries regarding cannabis-based medicines offer to neurological therapeutics by incorporating the neutral phytocannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), their acidic precursors, tetrahydro cannabinolic acid (THCA) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), and cannabis terpenoids in the putative treatment of five syndromes, currently labeled recalcitrant to therapeutic success, and wherein improved pharmacological intervention is required: intractable epilepsy, brain tumors, Parkinson disease (PD), Alzheimer disease (AD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI)/chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).

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Dr. Dave Hepburn website: https://doctordavidhepburn.com

Cannabis Research in Tourette Syndrome

“An Israeli study showed that of the patients without syndrome who tolerated cannabis treatment, many experienced a reduction in tic severity, better sleep and improved mood.”
-     Dr. David Hepburn

Abstract:

Patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) experience reduced function and impaired quality of life. The current medical treatments for this syndrome can cause significant side effects and offer partial symptomatic relief.

In a few small trials medical cannabis (MC) has been suggested to offer symptomatic relief with a relatively benign side effect profile. We conducted a real-life assessment of clinical benefit and adverse effects of chronic MC treatment among patients with GTS.

Forty-Two GTS patients (33 males, mean age 34.5) were interviewed for this study. The total global impression score of efficacy was 3.85 out of a total of 5 possible points. Patients reported during the free discussion part of the interview about a reduction in tic severity, better sleep and improved mood as positive effects of MC.

Thirty-eight patients reported any kind of benefit from treatment while 10 patients with more than one year of consumption elected to stop treatment with MC for various reasons including severe side effects as psychosis in one patient.

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Dr. Dave Hepburn website: https://doctordavidhepburn.com

Why Women Don’t Forget

“Men appear to have 41% more CB1 receptors in the brain. Unfortunately for men of the male species, this is inversely related to working memory. (No memory of working). The sex difference in the ECS is becoming more interesting in explaining reactions and abilities in both.”
-    Dr. David Hepburn 

Abstract:

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has a widespread neuron modulatory function in the central nervous system and is involved in important aspects of brain function including brain development, cortical rhythms, plasticity, reward, and stress sensitivity. 

Many of these effects are mediated via the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) subtype. 
Animal studies convincingly have shown the interaction between the ECS and sex hormones, as well as a sex difference of higher brain CB1R in males. Human in vivo studies of sex difference has yielded discrete pant findings.

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Dr. David Hepburn website: https://doctordavidhepburn.com

Michael J Fox Fdn Survey Shows Cannabis Benefit for Parkinson's Disease

Saturday, 12 January 2019

“Cannabis had positive impact son mood, memory, fatigue, and obesity status in peoplewith PD and MS. Current users reported high efficacy of cannabis, 6.4 (SD 1.8) on a scalefrom 0 to 7 and 59% reported reducing prescription medication since beginning cannabis use.”
- Dr. David Hepburn 

Abstract:

An anonymous web-based survey was hosted on the Michael J. Fox Foundation and the National Multiple Sclerosis Society web pages from 15 February to 15 October 2016. The survey collected demographic and cannabis use information, and used standardized questionnaires to assess neurological function, fatigue, balance, and physical activity participation. Analysis of variance and chi-square tests were used for the analysis.

Read full article here:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28735833

Dr. David Hepburn website: https://doctordavidhepburn.com

THCA May Protect Nerve Cells

Friday, 11 January 2019

“Another cannabinoid jumps into the fray and heads straight to thenucleus of the thenrve cell, working right at the DNA level. Could hold potential in dealing with the complicated neuro inflammatory related to neurodegeneration in so manytoughchronicconditions. (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, ALS, MS, Huntingtonsetc).”
- Dr. David Hepburn

Abstract:

Phytocannabinoids are produced in Cannabis sativa L. in acidic form and are decarboxylated upon heating, processing and storage. While the biological effects of decarboxylated cannabinoids such as Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol have been extensively investigated, the bioactivity of Δ9 -tetahydrocannabinol acid (Δ9 -THCA) is largely unknown.

Δ9 -THCA shows potent neuroprotective activity, which is worth considering for the treatment of Huntington's disease and possibly other neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases.

Read the full article here:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28853159

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Dr. Dave Hepburn website: https://doctordavidhepburn.com

No Change in Hippocampus Volume With Youth Cannabis Users

Tuesday, 8 January 2019

“A number of studies have found evidence of structural brain changes in teens and young adults who smoke marijuana, however is research indicates that there are no changes into adulthood in the hippocampus (memory).”
-    Dr. David Hepburn 

Abstract:

Cannabis exposure, particularly heavy cannabis use, has been associated with neuroanatomical alterations in regions rich with cannabinoid receptors such as the hippocampus in some but not in other (mainly cross-sectional) studies. However, it remains unclear whether continued heavy cannabis use alters hippocampal volume, and whether an earlier age of onset and/or a higher dosage exacerbate these changes.

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Dr. David Hepburn website: https://doctordavidhepburn.com

THC: Brain Benefits or Bust Depends on Age

“Findings presented at Neuroscience 2018 show that cannabis can either harness or hijack our endocannabinoid system. Takentoosoonit can hijack and interfere with the brain intended ECS development. But taken as we get older, cannabis can enhance our ECS and restore, repair, replace and regenerate some of the loss of brain function (including memory) that can accompany aging.”
- Dr. David Hepburn

Summary:


Research released underscores both the dangers and the therapeutic promise of marijuana, revealing different effects across the lifespan.

Marijuana exposure in the womb or during adolescence may disrupt learning and memory, damage communication between brain regions, and disturb levels of key neurotransmitters and metabolites in the brain. In Alzheimer's disease, however, compounds found in marijuana, such as the psychoactive compound delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), may improve memory and mitigate some of the disease's symptoms.

Read the full article here:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/11/181106150418.htm

Dr. David Hepburn website: https://doctordavidhepburn.com

Stimulation of Cannabinoid Receptor Inhibits Gastric Acid Secretion

“CB1R agonism (which is what THC is) inhibits powerful gastric acid secretion (a culprit in acid reflux and ulcers) while enhancing protective mucin release.”
-    Dr. David Hepburn

Summary:

Thecurrentstudyaimed to evaluate the role of cannabinoid receptors in the regulation of gastric acid secretion and oxidative stress in gastric mucosa. To fulfill this aim, gastric acid secretion stimulated with histamine (5 mg/kg, subcutaneous [SC]), 2-deoxy- d-glucose (D-G) (200 mg/kg, intravenous) or -carbachol (4 μg/kg, SC) in the 4-hour pylorus-ligated rats.

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Dr. David Hepburn website: https://doctordavidhepburn.com

Endocannabinoids Worsen Heart Function After Heart Attack

Monday, 7 January 2019

“The ECS reacts to try to balance our inner milieu when that milieu is disturbed. Sometimes, as our body tries to help itself, it can end up doing some damage. Endocannabinoids do not cause heart attacks, of course, but they are releases in response to this major stressor.”
-   Dr. David Hepburn.

Intravenous administration of endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol into wildtype C57BL6 mice induced a rapid increase of blood neutrophil and monocyte counts as measured by flow cytometry.

This effect was blunted when using cannabinoid receptor 2 knockout mice. In response to myocardial infarction induced in wildtype mice, the lipidomic analysis revealed significantly elevated plasma and cardiac levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol 24 h after infarction, but no changes in anandamide, palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide.

Read full article here:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30295758

Dr. Dave Hepburn website: https://doctordavidhepburn.com

CBD Reduces Cocaine Consumption

“CBD takes the lead cannabis role here as cocaine consumption and anxiety are reduced with repeated CBD treatment. CBD increased expression of cannabinoid receptors, BDNF expression, and neural cell proliferation in the hippocampus, all good things in helping to restructure neural pathways. The evidence for a role of CBD in treating substance abuse continues to point towards potential use in treatment centers.”
- Dr. David Hepburn

Repeated Cannabidiol treatment reduces cocaine intake and modulates neural proliferation and CB1R expression in the mouse hippocampus.

Recent studies on the therapeutic effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) on drug abuse showed mixed results, especially with psychostimulant substances such as cocaine. To determine whether CBD can attenuate cocaine reinforcement, we assessed behavioural responses induced by cocaine in mice, using the behavioural sensitization, conditioned place preference and intravenous self-administration paradigms.

Read full article here:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30273593

Dr. David Hepburn website: https://doctordavidhepburn.com

Aging, Exercise and Cannabis

“The science of exercise has matured to a level of importance in the life cycle to reduce pain with aging and include new investigations on the ECS to explain its role in the well-being and improved quality of life in later years. A natural high as the number of  birthday candles get high.”
 - Dr. David Hepburn

Abstract:

Investigators have reported increases in circulating levels of eCB after exercise, with some eCB exerting analgesic effects from exercise. The focus of this review is to discuss evidence for the role of eCB and the complexities of the ECS in exercise and pain.

Some aspects presented are the production of ECB and activation of the cannabinoid receptors in the brain following exercise; eCB, pain, and physical activity; oxylipins; and joint pain.

As we age, an exercise in the form of play has evolved with the exploration of our body from walking to running, recreational, and competitive sports, to midlife physical activity focusing on maintaining fitness and healthy body weight.

Read full article here:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30290200

Dr. Dave Hepburn website: https://doctordavidhepburn.com

Cannabis helps Spasticity in Lou Gehrig’s (ALS) disease

Friday, 4 January 2019

“Add ALS spasticity to MS spasticity as targets for cannabis therapy. A recent Italian study showed those on low dose cannabis spraynotonly improved, but nobody discontinued due to side effects.”
-   Dr. David Hepburn

Abstract:

Spasticity is a major determinant of disability and decline in quality of life in patients with motor neuron disease. Cannabinoids have been approved for symptomatic treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis. It was investigated whether cannabinoids might also reduce spasticity in patients with motor neuron disease.

Researchers found in this proof-of-concept trial, nabiximols had a positive effect on spasticity symptoms in patients with motor neuron disease and had an acceptable safety and tolerability profile. These findings should be investigated further in larger clinical trials.

Read the full article here:


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Dr. Dave Hepburn website: https://doctordavidhepburn.com

Inflammatory Bowel Responds to THCA

Thursday, 3 January 2019

“With increased interest in the benefits of THCA which, unlike THC, is NON PSYCHOACTIVE, comes this study involving GPR55 receptors in the colon. The evidence of the role of cannabinoids in Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis continues to point towards a therapeutic potential of cannabis for these difficult conditions.”
- Dr. David Hepburn

Abstract:

The anti-inflammatory activity of C. Sativa extracts was studied on three lines of epithelial cells and on colon tissue. C. sativa flowers were extracted with ethanol, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the level of interleukin-8 in colon cells and tissue biopsies, chemical analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance and gene expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR.

Read the full article here:

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/can.2017.0027

Dr. Dave Hepburn website: https://doctordavidhepburn.com

Cannabis and IQ in Youth

Wednesday, 2 January 2019

“While I remain adamant that cannabis use in youth is fraught with potential problems (depending on risk : benefit), the thin twin-twin study adds support to the side of the ledger that argues that cannabis and IQ are less causal and more of an effectual relationship.”
-    Dr. David Hepburn


Abstract:

Compared with adolescents who did not use cannabis, adolescents who used cannabis had lower IQ in childhood prior to cannabis initiation and lower IQ at age 18, but there was little evidence that cannabis use was associated with IQ decline from ages 12-18. For example, adolescents with cannabis dependence had age 12 and age 18 IQ scores that were 5.61 (t = -3.11, P = 0.002) and 7.34 IQ points (t = -5.27, P < 0.001) lower than adolescents without cannabis dependence, but adolescents with cannabis dependence did not show greater IQ decline from age 12-18 (t = -1.27, P = 0.20). Moreover, adolescents who used cannabis had poorer executive functions at age 18 than adolescents who did not use cannabis, but these associations were generally not apparent within twin pairs.

Read full article here:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28734078

Dr. Dave Hepburn website: https://doctordavidhepburn.com

CBD: Cheese Bacon Donuts

“With an increasing number of patients being prescribed CBD, it is often asked whether to take it on an empty stomach or with meals. PKPD studies show that taking it with a high fat meal increases the amount absorbed into the blood by over four times.”
-          Dr. David Hepburn

Abstract:

Background

A formal single ascending and multiple dose pharmacokinetic (PK) trial of cannabidiol (CBD) oral solution was required to determine the safety and tolerability of CBD, the maximum tolerated dose, and to examine the effect of food on CBD PK parameters.

Objective

This trial assessed the safety, tolerability and PK of CBD oral solution in healthy adult volunteers, as well as the effect of food on CBD PK parameters.

Methods

The study consisted of three arms: single ascending dose (1500, 3000, 4500 or 6000 mg CBD [n = 6 per group]/placebo [n = 8; 2 per CBD dose group]), multiple dose (750 or 1500 mg CBD [n = 9 per group]/placebo [n = 6; 3 per CBD dose group] twice daily), and food effect (1500 mg CBD single dose [n = 12]). All subjects completed all trial arms and were analyzed as planned.

Read full article here:

Dr. David Hepburn website: https://doctordavidhepburn.com
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