New study: Autism and Cannabis - Dr. David Hepburn

Monday, 17 September 2018

Article recommend by Dr. David Hepburn:

Military Funds Research of Cannabis-based Autism Treatment for Kids

Study: The trial aims to study the effectiveness of cannabidivarin (CBDV) on irritability and repetitive behaviors in children with ASD. 

Raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be an overwhelming experience for parents and have far-reaching effects on the entire family. According to CDC estimates, one in every 68 children has ASD and many exhibit aggressive, self-injurious and repetitive behaviors.

The hope is that CBDV can be an effective treatment for these behaviors without the significant side effects present in current treatments, according to Hollander.

“The remarkable thing to me about this study is, not that it only involves CBDV, but that it is being sponsored by the US Department of Defence. Clearly, we have progressed.”
Dr. David Hepburn

To read the full article please visit:

Dr. Dave Hepburn website:

Cannabis leads to fewer bladder infections - Dr. David Hepburn

Thursday, 13 September 2018

Article recommend by Dr. David Hepburn:

The Association Between Tetrahydrocannabinol and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Utilizing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.


To further define the relationship between tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), specifically how THC use associates with the frequency of LUTS in young community-dwelling men in the United States. 

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database was queried (2005-2008). Men ages 20-59 who completed the urinary and substance abuse questionnaires were included. The presence of LUTS was defined as having ≥2 of the following: nocturia (≥2), hesitancy, incomplete emptying, or incontinence. THC use was self-reported, and participants were considered regular smokers if they endorsed smoking at least once per month. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to analyze the relationship between THC and LUTS. 

Among 3,037 men who met inclusion criteria, 14.4% (n=477) of subjects reported THC use. In multivariable analyses, adjusting for clinical variables, regular THC users remained significantly less likely to report LUTS (odds ratio of 0.55; CI 95% 0.408-0.751, p<0.01) compared to non-users. 

Obesity, diabetes, and multiple co-morbidities are well-established risk factors for LUTS within the NHANES. Regular THC use, however, appears to be protective from LUTS in young community-dwelling men.

“Bladder infections are an extremely common concern. Should this extrapolate to all demographics, this would be very significant."

To read the full article please visit:

Dr. Dave Hepburn website:

Tobacco smokers have reduced brain receptors for cannabis - Dr. David Hepburn

Tuesday, 11 September 2018

Article Recommended by Dr. David Hepburn:

Decreased Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors in Male Tobacco Smokers Examined With Positron Emission Tomography.


Previous studies showed reduction of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors in adults with cannabis and alcohol use disorders. Preclinical data suggest that these receptors also contribute to nicotine reward and dependence. Tobacco smoking may confound clinical studies of psychiatric disorders because many patients with such disorders smoke tobacco. Whether human subjects who smoke tobacco but are otherwise healthy have altered CB1 receptor binding in brain is unknown. 

We measured CB1 receptors in brains of 18 healthy men who smoke tobacco (frequent chronic cigarette smokers), and 28 healthy men who do not smoke tobacco, using positron emission tomography and [18F]FMPEP-d2, a radioligand for CB1 receptors. We collected arterial blood samples during scanning to calculate the distribution volume (VT), which is nearly proportional to CB1 receptor density. Repeated-measures analysis of variance compared VT between groups in various brain regions. 

Brain CB1 receptor VT was about 20% lower in subjects who smoke tobacco than in subjects who do not. Decreased VT was found in all brain regions, but reduction did not correlate with years of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, or measures of nicotine dependence. 

Tobacco-smoking healthy men have a widespread reduction of CB1 receptor density in brain. Reduction of CB1 receptors appears to be a common feature of substance use disorders. Future clinical studies on the CB1 receptor should control for tobacco smoking.

"Reduction of CB1 receptors appears to be a common feature of substance use disorders. This may have important therapeutic ramifications”

To read the full article please visit:

Dr. Dave Hepburn website:

Cannabis lozenges reduce pain efficiently - Dr. David Hepburn

Friday, 7 September 2018

Article recommended by Dr. Dave Hepburn

Self-Reported Effectiveness and Safety of Trokie® Lozenges: A Standardized Formulation for the Buccal Delivery of Cannabis Extracts.

Therapeutic use of cannabinoids, the main active ingredients of Cannabissativa L., is often hindered by their limited bioavailability and undesirable psychoactivity. We conducted an observational study in December 2016 and another one in February 2018 to investigate respectively: (i) the effectiveness of Trokie® lozenges, a standardized formulation containing cannabis extracts, to deliver cannabinoids via buccal absorption and (ii) its long-term safety. Participants were members of the Palliative Care Corporation health clinic, registered California cannabis patients, and had a diagnosis of chronic non-cancer pain. For the effectiveness study, 49 participants were asked to self-report pain perception before and after 1-12 weeks of taking Trokie® lozenges, using an 11-point pain intensity numeric rating scale (PI-NRS). A mean reduction in PI-NRS score of 4.9 ± 2.0 points was observed. Onset of analgesia typically varied between 5 and 40 min, which seems consistent with, at least partial, buccal absorption. In the safety study, 35 participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about adverse events (AEs) associated with Trokie® lozenges. AEs were reported by 16 subjects (46%), the most common being dizziness/unsteadiness (N = 7), bad taste (N = 5), and throat irritation/dry mouth (N = 4). None of the self-reported AEs resulted in a serious medical situation and most of them had limited impact on daily functions. Despite the AEs, 90% of participants reported being "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with the product. These observations suggest that buccal administration of standardized extracts via Trokie® lozenges may represent an efficacious and safe approach to cannabis administration.

“Yet another study pointing the promising analgesic properties of cannabis, this using a quicker different delivery mechanism than ingestion.”
Dr. Dave Hepburn 

To read the full article please visit:

David Hepburn website:

THC inhibits endometrial cancer

Wednesday, 5 September 2018

Article recommended by Dr. David Hepburn

Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis by targeting matrix metalloproteinase-9 in endometrial cancer.


Currently available antidepressants have a substantial time lag to induce therapeutic response and a relatively low efficacy. The development of drugs that addresses these limitations is critical to improving public health. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotomimetic component of Cannabis sativa, is a promising compound since it shows large-spectrum therapeutic potential in preclinical models and humans. However, its antidepressant properties have not been completely investigated. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate in male rodents (i) whether CBD could induce rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects after a single administration and (ii) whether such effects could be related to changes in synaptic proteins/function. Results showed that a single dose of CBD dose-dependently induced antidepressant-like effect (7-30 mg/kg) in Swiss mice submitted to the forced swim test (FST), 30 min (acute) or 7 days (sustained) following treatment. Similar effects were observed in the Flinders Sensitive and Flinders Resistant Line (FSL/FRL) rats and the learned helplessness (LH) paradigm using Wistar rats. The acute antidepressant effects (30 min) were associated with increased expression of synaptophysin and PSD95 in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and elevated BDNF levels in both mPFC and hippocampus (HPC). CBD also increased spine density in the mPFC after 30 min, but not 7 days later. Intracerebroventricular injection of the TrkB antagonist, K252a (0.05 nmol/μL), or the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin (1 nmol/μL), abolished the behavioral effects of CBD. These results indicate that CBD induces fast and sustained antidepressant-like effect in distinct animal models relevant for depression. These effects may be related to rapid changes in synaptic plasticity in the mPFC through activation of the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway. The data support a promising therapeutic profile for CBD as a new fast-acting antidepressant drug.

“The amount of literature continues to grow supporting cannabinoids’ positive role on cancers. In addition to inducing cancer cells to try to commit suicide (apoptosis), decreasing their blood supply (angiogenesis) and inhibiting it’s growth, cannabinoids also play a role in discouraging the spread (metastasis) in certain cancers including endometrial cancer, a frightening cancer for many women." 
Dr. David Hepburn

To read the full article please visit:

David Hepburn website: