Those Using Cannabis Are Much More Successful Getting Off Opioids - Dr. David Hepburn

Monday, 29 October 2018


Article recommend by Dr. David Hepburn:

High-intensity cannabis use is associated with retention in opioid agonist treatment: a longitudinal analysis.

Abstract 

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: 
Cannabis use is common among people on opioid agonist treatment (OAT), causing concern for some care providers. However, there is limited and conflicting evidence on the impact of cannabis use on OAT outcomes. Given the critical role of retention in OAT in reducing opioid-related morbidity and mortality, we aimed to estimate the association of at least daily cannabis use on the likelihood of retention in treatment among people initiating OAT. As a secondary aim we tested the impacts of less frequent cannabis use. 

DESIGN: 
Data were drawn from two community-recruited prospective cohorts of people who use illicit drugs (PWUD). Participants were followed for a median of 81 months (interquartile range = 37-130). 

SETTING: 
Vancouver, Canada. 

PARTICIPANTS: 
This study comprised a total of 820 PWUD (57.8% men, 59.4% of Caucasian ethnicity, 32.2% HIV-positive) initiating OAT between December 1996 and May 2016. The proportion of women was higher among HIV-negative participants, with no other significant differences. 

MEASUREMENTS: 
The primary outcome was retention in OAT, defined as remaining in OAT (methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone-based) for two consecutive 6-month follow-up periods. The primary explanatory variable was cannabis use (at least daily versus less than daily) during the same 6-month period. Confounders assessed included: socio-demographic characteristics, substance use patterns and social-structural exposures. 

FINDINGS: 
In adjusted analysis, at least daily cannabis use was positively associated with retention in OAT [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.41]. Our secondary analysis showed that compared with non-cannabis users, at least daily users had increased odds of retention in OAT (aOR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.02-1.43), but not less than daily users (aOR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.87-1.14). 

CONCLUSIONS: 
Among people who use illicit drugs initiating opioid agonist treatment in Vancouver, at least daily cannabis use was associated with approximately 21% greater odds of retention in treatment compared with less than daily consumption.

"The role of cannabis (both CBD and THC) has already been shown to be useful as a substitute for higher dose opioids for pain control (typically post op), but now, it ALSO can help those who are addicted to successfully get off and stay off opioids.”
Dr. David Hepburn

To read the full article please visit: 


Dr. David Hepburn website:

Impressive New Ways that CBD Works - Dr. Dave Hepburn

Wednesday, 24 October 2018

Article recommend by Dr. David Hepburn:

Cannabidiol enhances morphine antinociception, diminishes NMDA-mediated seizures and reduces stroke damage via the sigma 1 receptor.

Abstract

Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic compound present in the Cannabis sativa plant, exhibits therapeutic potential for various human diseases, including chronic neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, ischemic stroke, epilepsy and other convulsive syndromes, neuropsychiatric disorders, neuropathic allodynia and certain types of cancer. CBD does not bind directly to endocannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, and despite research efforts, its specific targets remain to be fully identified. Notably, sigma 1 receptor (σ1R) antagonists inhibit glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate acid receptor (NMDAR) activity and display positive effects on most of the aforesaid diseases. Thus, we investigated the effects of CBD on three animal models in which NMDAR overactivity plays a critical role: opioid analgesia attenuation, NMDA-induced convulsive syndrome and ischemic stroke. In an in vitro assay, CBD disrupted the regulatory association of σ1R with the NR1 subunit of NMDAR, an effect shared by σ1R antagonists, such as BD1063 and progesterone, and prevented by σ1R agonists, such as 4-IBP, PPCC and PRE084. The in vivo administration of CBD or BD1063 enhanced morphine-evoked supraspinal antinociception, alleviated NMDA-induced convulsive syndrome, and reduced the infarct size caused by permanent unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion. These positive effects of CBD were reduced by the σ1R agonists PRE084 and PPCC, and absent in σ1R-/- mice. Thus, CBD displays antagonist-like activity toward σ1R to reduce the negative effects of NMDAR overactivity in the abovementioned experimental situations.

"As the mystery of how CBD actually works is unveiled, many receptors OTHER than cannabinoid receptors are involved. This mechanism/receptors help explain why CBD works for seizures and make morphine more effective (thus requiring a smaller dose)"
Dr. Dave Hepburn

To read the full article please visit:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30223868

Dr. David Hepburn website:
doctordavidhepburn.com

Yet Another Cannabinoid Shows Remarkable Promise - Dr. David Hepburn

Monday, 22 October 2018


Article recommend by Dr. David Hepburn:

Effect of cannabidiolic acid and -tetrahydrocannabinol on carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and edema in a rodent model of inflammatory pain.

Abstract

RATIONALE:
Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating component of cannabis, or the psychoactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabiol (THC), shows anti-hyperalgesia and anti-inflammatory properties.

OBJECTIVES:
The present study evaluates the anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesia effects of CBD's potent acidic precursor, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), in a rodent model of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in the rat hind paw, when administered systemically (intraperitoneal, i.p.) or orally before and/or after carrageenan. In addition, we assess the effects of oral administration of THC or CBDA, their mechanism of action, and the efficacy of combined ineffective doses of THC and CBDA in this model. Finally, we compare the efficacy of CBD and CBDA.

RESULTS:
CBDA given i.p. 60 min prior to carrageenan (but not 60 min after carrageenan) produced dose-dependent anti-hyperalgesia and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, THC or CBDA given by oral gavage 60 min prior to carrageenan produced anti-hyperalgesia effects, and THC reduced inflammation. The anti-hyperalgesia effects of THC were blocked by SR141716 (a cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonist), while CBDA's effects were blocked by AMG9810 (a transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 antagonist). In comparison to CBDA, an equivalent low dose of CBD did not reduce hyperalgesia, suggesting that CBDA is more potent than CBD for this indication. Interestingly, when ineffective doses of CBDA or THC alone were combined, this combination produced an anti-hyperalgesia effect and reduced inflammation.

CONCLUSION:
CBDA or THC alone, as well as very low doses of combined CBDA and THC, has anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesia effects in this animal model of acute inflammation.


“CBDA is the precursor of CBD and is the raw form of cannabis. Already considered 100x more powerful than CBD as an anti-nauseant (anti emetic) and may have a role in the reduction of breast cancer metastasis PLUS anxiety. Stay tuned to see how interesting a molecule this non psychoactive little gem might be.”
Dr. David Hepburn


To read the full article please visit: 

Dr. David Hepburn website: 

New Study of Cannabinoids in Prostate Cancer - Dr. David Hepburn

Thursday, 18 October 2018


Article recommend by Dr. David Hepburn:


Cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumor growth in prostate cancer in a cannabinoid-receptor 2 dependent manner.


Abstract

BACKGROUND: 
Cannabinoids have demonstrated anticarcinogenic properties in a variety of malignancies, including in prostate cancer. In the present study, we explored the anti-cancer effects of the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) in prostate cancer. 

METHODS: 
Established prostate cancer cells (PC3, DU145, LNCaP) were treated with varying concentrations of WIN. Cell proliferation was determined by the MTS assay. The anti-migration and anti-invasive potential of WIN was examined by the wound healing assay and the matrigel invasion assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry, and mechanistic studies were performed by Western blot. Athymic mice (n = 10) were inoculated with human PC3 cells. Once tumors reached 100 mm3 , animals were randomized into two groups: saline control and WIN (5 mg/kg), delivered by intraperitoneal injection three times per week for 3 weeks. 

RESULTS: 
WIN significantly reduced prostate cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, induced apoptosis, and arrested cells in Go/G1 phase in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies revealed these effects were mediated through a pathway involving cell cycle regulators p27, Cdk4, and pRb. Pre-treatment with a CB2 antagonist, AM630, followed by treatment with WIN resulted in a reversal of the anti-proliferation and cell cycle arrest previously seen with WIN alone. In vivo, administration of WIN resulted in a reduction in the tumor growth rate compared to control (P < 0.05). 

CONCLUSIONS: 
The following study provides evidence supporting the use of WIN as a novel therapeutic for prostate cancer.

“Important news for men with prostates and the women who love them (the men...not the prostates). Potential novel therapeutics for this very common cancer that is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men, behind lung cancer.”
Dr. David Hepburn


To read the full article please visit: 

Dr. David Hepburn website: 

Cannabis Extract Inhibits Superbug MRSA - Dr. David Hepburn

Tuesday, 16 October 2018


Article recommend by Dr. David Hepburn:


Antimicrobial activity of Cannabis sativa, Thuja orientalis and Psidium guajava leaf extracts against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.


Abstract 
OBJECTIVE: 
This study examined the antimicrobial activity of Cannabis sativa, Thuja orientalis and Psidium guajava against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and used a standardized purification protocol to determine the presence and abundance of bioactive compounds in the leaf extracts. 
METHODS: 
In vitro antimicrobial activities of the ethanolic extracts of C. sativa, T. orientalis and P. guajava were tested against MRSA. The presence of bioactive molecules in these three leaves was evaluated using biochemical assays and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). 
RESULTS:
Resistance to methicillin, penicillin, oxacillin and cefoxitin was observed in each of the clinical and nonclinical MRSA isolates. However, they were still vulnerable to vancomycin. Used individually, the 50% extract of each plant leaf inhibited MRSA growth. A profound synergism was observed when C. sativa was used in combination with T. orientalis (1:1) and when P. guajava was used in combination with T. orientalis (1:1). This was shown by larger zones of inhibition. This synergism was probably due to the combined inhibitory effect of phenolics present in the leaf extracts (i.e., quercetin and gallic acid) and catechin, as detected by HPTLC. 
CONCLUSION:
The leaf extracts of C. sativa, T. orientalis and P. guajava had potential for the control of both hospital- and community-acquired MRSA. Moreover, the inhibitory effect was enhanced when extracts were used in combination.


“MRSA is a terrible problem that every hospital and clinician fears. What an option this would prove to be. I have heard from several sources that certain cannabinoids and terpenes may do just as this study purports.”
Dr. David Hepburn


To read the full article please visit:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30120078

Dr. David Hepburn website:
doctordavidhepburn.com





US Study Shows Which Cannabis (and how) is Best for Insomnia.

Friday, 12 October 2018


Article recommend by Dr. David Hepburn:

Effectiveness of Raw, Natural Medical Cannabis Flower for Treating Insomnia under Naturalistic Conditions.

Abstract 

We use a mobile software application (app) to measure for the first time, which fundamental characteristics of raw, natural medical Cannabis flower are associated with changes in perceived insomnia under naturalistic conditions. Methods: Four hundred and nine people with a specified condition of insomnia completed 1056 medical cannabis administration sessions using the Releaf AppTM educational software during which they recorded real-time ratings of self-perceived insomnia severity levels prior to and following consumption, experienced side effects, and product characteristics, including combustion method, cannabis subtypes, and/or major cannabinoid contents of cannabis consumed. Within-user effects of different flower characteristics were modeled using a fixed effects panel regression approach with standard errors clustered at the user level. Results: Releaf AppTM users showed an average symptom severity reduction of -4.5 points on a 0⁻10 point visual analogue scale (SD = 2.7, d = 2.10, p < 0.001). Use of pipes and vaporizers was associated with greater symptom relief and more positive and context-specific side effects as compared to the use of joints, while vaporization was also associated with lower negative effects. Cannabidiol (CBD) was associated with greater statistically significant symptom relief than tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), but the cannabinoid levels generally were not associated with differential side effects. Flower from C. sativa plants was associated with more negative side effects than flower from C. indica or hybrid plant subtypes. Conclusions: Consumption of medical Cannabis flower is associated with significant improvements in perceived insomnia with differential effectiveness and side effect profiles, depending on the product characteristics. 

“There are simply too many who are addicted to prescription sleeping pills even though there is a concern that those who take even a few may development cognitive impairment. The cannabis that appears to help best with insomnia is a CBD dominant, vaporized (not smoked) “indica.” Though “indica” doesn’t specifically say which terpenes are involved I always recommend high myrcene and linalool.”
Dr. David Hepburn

To read the full article please visit:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29997343

Dr. David Hepburn website:
doctordavidhepburn.com


Cannabinoid Receptor (CB1) Plays Crucial Role in Alzheimers Disease - Dr. Dave Hepburn

Tuesday, 9 October 2018


Article recommend by Dr. Dave Hepburn:

Genetic deletion of CB1 cannabinoid receptors exacerbates the Alzheimer-like symptoms in a transgenic animal model.

Abstract
Activating CB1 cannabinoid receptor has been demonstrated to produce certain therapeutic effects in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we evaluated the specific contribution of CB1 receptor to the progression of AD-like pathology in double transgenic APP/PS1 mice. A new mouse strain was generated by crossing APP/PS1 transgenic mice with CB1 knockout mice. Genetic deletion of CB1 drastically reduced the survival of APP/PS1 mice. In spite that CB1 mutant mice bearing the APP/PS1 transgene developed normally, they suddenly died within the first two months of life likely due to spontaneous seizures. This increased mortality could be related to an imbalance in the excitatory/inhibitory transmission in the hippocampus as suggested by the reduced density of inhibitory parvalbumin positive neurons observed in APP/PS1 mice lacking CB1 receptor at 7 weeks of age. We also evaluated the AD-like phenotype of APP/PS1 mice heterozygous for the CB1 deletion at 3 and 6 months of age. The memory impairment associated to APP/PS1 transgene was accelerated in these mice. Neither the soluble levels of Aβ or the density of Aβ plaques were modified in APP/PS1 mice heterozygous for CB1 deletion at any age. However, the reduction in CB1 receptor expression decreased the levels of PSD-95 protein in APP/PS1 mice, suggesting a synaptic dysfunction in these animals that could account for the acceleration of the memory impairment observed. In summary, our results suggest a crucial role for CB1 receptor in the progression of AD-related pathological events.

“Although several studies have shown that type-2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) is involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, now a crucial role of CB1R has become evident. One of the more exciting areas of cannabis and endocannaboid research.”
Dr. Dave Hepburn

To read the full article please visit: 

Dr. David Hepburn website: 

Schizophrenia More Likely to Lead to Cannabis Use…. Not the Reverse - Dr Dave Hepburn

Friday, 5 October 2018


Article recommend by Dr. Dave Hepburn:


GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, genetic overlap with psychiatric traits, and a causal influence of schizophrenia.



Abstract 
Cannabis use is a heritable trait that has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes. In the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) for lifetime cannabis use to date (N = 184,765), we identified eight genome-wide significant independent single nucleotide polymorphisms in six regions. All measured genetic variants combined explained 11% of the variance. Gene-based tests revealed 35 significant genes in 16 regions, and S-PrediXcan analyses showed that 21 genes had different expression levels for cannabis users versus nonusers. The strongest finding across the different analyses was CADM2, which has been associated with substance use and risk-taking. Significant genetic correlations were found with 14 of 25 tested substance use and mental health-related traits, including smoking, alcohol use, schizophrenia and risk-taking. Mendelian randomization analysis showed evidence for a causal positive influence of schizophrenia risk on cannabis use. Overall, our study provides new insights into the etiology of cannabis use and its relation with mental health.


“It is well known that cannabis use is higher in those with schizophrenia. However, cannabis has never been shown to cause schizophrenia; in fact, the opposite appears to be true as more research is lining up showing that those with schizophrenia are more likely to turn to cannabis, possibly to help deal with the social isolation and/or a genetic predisposition as this study infers. Once again, any who claim that cannabis causes schizophrenia, are simply incorrect.” 
Dr. Dave Hepburn


To read the full article please visit:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30150663


Dr. David Hepburn website:
doctordavidhepburn.com

   


Cannabinoid Receptor Protects Against Hearing Loss Caused by Chemotherapy - Dr. David Hepburn

Monday, 1 October 2018


Article recommend by Dr. David Hepburn:

The Endocannabinoid/Cannabinoid Receptor 2 System Protects Against Cisplatin-Induced Hearing Loss

Abstract
Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2R) in the rat cochlea which was induced by cisplatin. In an organ of Corti-derived cell culture model, it was also shown that an agonist of the CB2R protected these cells against cisplatin-induced apoptosis. In the current study, we determined the distribution of CB2R in the mouse and rat cochleae and examined whether these receptors provide protection against cisplatin-induced hearing loss. In a knock-in mouse model expressing the CB2R tagged with green fluorescent protein, we show distribution of CB2R in the organ of Corti, stria vascularis, spiral ligament and spiral ganglion cells. A similar distribution of CB2R was observed in the rat cochlea using a polyclonal antibody against CB2R. Trans-tympanic administration of (2-methyl-1-propyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1-naphthalenylmethanone (JWH015), a selective agonist of the CB2R, protected against cisplatin-induced hearing loss which was reversed by blockade of this receptor with 6-iodo-2-methyl-1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl](4-methoxyphenyl)methanone (AM630), an antagonist of CB2R. JWH015 also reduced the loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) in the organ of Corti, loss of inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapses and loss of Na+/K+-ATPase immunoreactivity in the stria vascularis. Administration of AM630 alone produced significant hearing loss (measured by auditory brainstem responses) which was not associated with loss of OHCs, but led to reductions in the levels of IHC ribbon synapses and strial Na+/K+-ATPase immunoreactivity. Furthermore, knock-down of CB2R by trans-tympanic administration of siRNA sensitized the cochlea to cisplatin-induced hearing loss at the low and middle frequencies. Hearing loss induced by cisplatin and AM630 in the rat was associated with increased expression of genes for oxidative stress and inflammatory proteins in the rat cochlea. In vitro studies indicate that JWH015 did not alter cisplatin-induced killing of cancer cells suggesting this agent could be safely used during cisplatin chemotherapy. These data unmask a protective role of the cochlear endocannabinoid/CB2R system which appears tonically active under normal conditions to preserve normal hearing. However, an exogenous agonist is needed to boost the activity of endocannabinoid/CB2R system for protection against a more traumatic cochlear insult, as observed with cisplatin administration.

“One of the several possible nasty side effects of a common anticancer medication, is hearing loss. Activation of CB2R appears to prevent this, indicating an important role of the ECS (endocannabinoid system) in neuroprotection."
Dr. David Hepburn

To read the full article please visit:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6110918/

Dr. David Hepburn website:
doctordavidhepburn.com